Signs of HIV and AIDS
Signs of HIV and AIDS
HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a type of virus that weakens the human immune system by attacking white blood cells called CD4 cells. HIV is often equated with AIDS, even though the two are different. AIDS is a continuation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, which is a set of symptoms of a disease that arises due to long-term HIV infection. A person infected with HIV may experience some initial symptoms first in the first few years, before eventually progressing to AIDS.
The initial stage of HIV infection is quite easily overlooked because sometimes it does not show obvious symptoms. Therefore, it is important for everyone to detect HIV symptoms early so that they can immediately get the right treatment if needed. In addition, checking for HIV symptoms from the beginning of exposure can help narrow the chance of transmitting the disease to other people around.
Early symptoms of HIV
HIV will not directly damage your organs. The virus slowly attacks the immune system and gradually weakens it until then your body becomes vulnerable to disease, especially infections.
HIV infection can generally take about 2 to 15 years to actually show typical symptoms. In the initial stages, HIV symptoms usually begin to appear no later than 1 to 2 months after the virus enters the body. Even according to the US Department of Health and Human Services, the early symptoms of HIV can already be seen as early as two weeks post-exposure.
Symptoms of HIV at the onset of the virus incubation period generally look similar to general flu symptoms, which include:
Fever (usually higher than ordinary fever; it may even be accompanied by a great sensation of fever.
Swollen lymph nodes
Rashes on the skin
Pain in muscles and joints
Wounds in the mouth
Wounds in the intimate organs
Often sweat at night
However, not all people would show symptoms of HIV in the early period of the disease. There are some people who just do not show any symptoms at all since the beginning though was infected with HIV. that is why everyone at high risk of contracting obliged to undergo an HIV test.
the initial symptoms of AIDS
In theory, you could get HIV and AIDS at the same time. However, not all people with HIV automatically have AIDS in the future. Most people with HIV can live for many years without having AIDS. On the other hand, you who have been diagnosed with AIDS will definitely have an HIV infection.
The opportunity for a person with HIV to develop AIDS can be wide open if the infection is allowed to continue for the long term without proper treatment. If so, over time the infection will continue to become chronic and develop into AIDS which is the final stage of HIV.
The initial symptoms of AIDS that appear can vary in each individual patient. Usually a variety of serious infections begin to attack AIDS patients because the immune system at this phase is very weak.
Some of the earliest symptoms of AIDS that are commonly seen in end-stage HIV sufferers are:
Rapid and unplanned weight loss
Fever that fluctuates or disappears
Excessive sweating especially at night
Feeling very tired when not doing heavy activities
Prolonged swelling of the lymph nodes (usually the glands in the armpits, groin, or neck)
Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week
Injuries occur in the mouth, anus and genital organs
Rashes or boils appear reddish, brown, or purplish under the skin or in the mouth, nose, and even eyelids
Nerve disorders such as memory loss, depression, and others.
Nerve disorders such as memory loss, depression, and others.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease atau radang panggul. Peradangan ini menyerang bagian reproduksi wanita seperti rahim, leher rahim, tuba fallopi, dan indung telur.
Perubahan terhadap siklus haid, menjadi lebih sering atau bahkan jarang, darah yang keluar sangat banyak, atau mengalami amenorrhea (tidak haid) selama lebih dari 90 hari.
Each of the initial symptoms of HIV AIDS can be different or related to the symptoms of an infectious disease suffered by AIDS sufferers.
The initial symptoms of HIV can become more severe as the infection develops. Types of infectious diseases that are complications of HIV such as tuberculosis, herpes simplex, invasive cervical cancer, to encephalopathy.
Phases of HIV infection
1. The first phase of HIV
The initial symptoms of HIV can last from several days to several weeks. This short period is called acute infection, primary HIV infection or also known as acute retroviral syndrome.
If you have an HIV test, indications of infection may not be read on the test results. This is quite dangerous because people who are actually infected can still spread the virus to other people.
At this stage, most people experience flu-like symptoms. Early symptoms of HIV that are also shown are often similar to gastrointestinal or respiratory infections.
2. Second phase of HIV
This is the latent stage of clinical or chronic HIV infection. Upon entering the latent period, people with HIV infection may not feel any symptoms. HIV is still active, but it reproduces very slowly. You may not experience any of the initial symptoms of HIV as the virus develops. This latent period can last a decade or more.
In this latent period that can last up to ten years many people do not show any early symptoms of HIV. This stage is worth watching out for because the virus will continue to grow unnoticed.
Despite being in a latent period and no early symptoms of HIV appear, HIV sufferers can still transmit HIV to others.
At this stage, the immune system is still able to control the activity of the virus. The immune system cannot completely eliminate HIV but can control HIV infection for a long time.
For those not taking drugs to control the initial symptoms of HIV and the development of infection, this latent period can last for 10 years or more but can also be faster.
While those who regularly consume drugs can survive in the latent period up to several decades.
In addition, those who routinely take drugs and have very low levels of virus in the blood are less likely to transmit HIV compared to those who do not take drugs.
3. The last phase of HIV
The last phase of HIV is AIDS. In this final phase, the immune system is severely damaged and susceptible to opportunistic infections. Opportunistic infections are infections that attack people with a poor immune system.
When HIV has developed into AIDS, the initial symptoms of HIV AIDS such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and fever can only be seen. In addition, the initial symptoms of HIV AIDS such as weight loss, nail infections, headaches and frequent sweating on days even mark the initial stages of AIDS.
How important is taking an HIV test?
Diagnosis of HIV and AIDS itself can not be done just by observing the initial symptoms of HIV AIDS, it needs further examination to determine whether someone really has HIV AIDS or not.
If the initial symptoms of HIV and AIDS occur to you, do not panic, see yourself to the doctor, especially if you are in a group that is vulnerable to HIV and AIDS.
Applying for an HIV test is very important because the person is infected with HIV, but does not show any early HIV symptoms and is not aware that he is infected. The person will easily transmit the virus to other people. For example through blood and saliva.
Doing an HIV blood test and other tests is the only way to determine whether you are positively infected or not. If you feel sexually active, have used needles simultaneously, or even more so when you have experienced the initial symptoms of HIV after infection, then take an HIV test to protect yourself and others.
Being diagnosed with HIV is not a "death sentence".
HIV sufferers need treatment with antiretrovirals (ARVs) to reduce the amount of HIV virus in the body so it does not enter the final phase, namely AIDS. HIV drugs given early in the infection can control to slow down the development of the virus.
In addition to controlling early HIV symptoms, this treatment has been shown to have a role in HIV prevention because it stops viral replication which gradually decreases the amount of virus in the blood.
It is also important to realize that decreasing the amount of virus with ARV therapy must be accompanied by changes in behavior that remain at risk. For example, controlling sexual behavior and stopping syringes simultaneously and using condoms.
If you or someone close to you is detected by HIV and has early symptoms of HIV, consult your doctor immediately. You do not need to panic when experiencing early HIV symptoms because with early detection and treatment of ARVs, the HIV virus can still be controlled.