Several Types of Wood Drying Ovens in the Jepara Furniture Industry - Navigasi Berita a -->
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Several Types of Wood Drying Ovens in the Jepara Furniture Industry

Navigasi - A wood drying oven is different from an oven for baking bread, bro, maybe the working principle is almost the same, namely by heating the room, but many things are different, especially the size.

Several Types of Wood Drying Ovens in the Jepara Furniture Industry
Several Types of Wood Drying Ovens in the Jepara Furniture Industry


A wood oven or better known as a "kiln-dry" is a room designed in such a way that is useful for drying wood, both boards, components, and finished goods.

Heating a wood drying oven can be done in various ways, from the most traditional to the state of the art sophisticated. Well, in this post, we will only share stories about the wood drying method that is widely used in the Jepara furniture industry, yes, the kiln-dry used by a giant company like plywood is beyond our capacity.

Disclaimer, the information contained here is only the opinion of practitioners, in this case we are Japanese furniture craftsmen. If you want scientific information about wood drying, you can directly read the book, one of the recommended ones is the book on wood drying technology by Mas Tomy Listiyanto, in the marketplace there are also those that sell it.

Why Do You Need a Wood Oven?


But before we discuss some of the types of wood ovens in Jepara, it might be better if we explain first why the wood must be in the oven.

So actually what is needed is not the oven, but the dryness of the wood, now this wood drying oven is only one of several methods for drying wood.

Why does wood have to be dry?


  • Wood that is still wet tends to be unstable in its development and shrinkage, as a result, if it is forced to make Jepara furniture, the result will be damaged construction, for example joint cracks, cracks, or the glue comes off.
  • Wet wood is at risk of mold growth, this is scary especially for exporters whose shipments are via closed containers, crossing wide oceans for weeks, the air is humid and hot, suitable for mushroom cultivation, right? Don't get me wrong, mushrooms are a BIG deal for outsiders. They are even afraid of wood mildew on their furniture.
  • The finishing results are less than optimal when applied to wood that is still wet, there are risks such as peeling, the color is damaged by sap, until the rough finishing results are very likely to occur if the workpiece is still wet.

Actually, there are still many negative sides to using wood that is still wet if it is directly used for making furniture, but from the 3 points above, it must be enough to make you, a customer, cancel the purchase, right? so yeah that's really important.

Types of Wood Dryer Ovens and Estimated Manufacturing Costs


Why use the estimated cost of making a wood oven? Yes, there is no special reason, who knows you have plans to start a furniture business, right? so let this post be useful too.

It's called an estimate, nothing is accurate, it's just an estimate, it all depends on the situation, conditions, tolerance, views, and reach (no need to abbreviate) each of us. For example, the price of an iron plate in Jepara is 10,000 rupiah or in dollar terms, about $ 0.68.

1. Traditional Oven (baked oven)



Ok, let's start with the traditional ones first, because they say the traditional ones are more efficacious and have no side effects. That's if it's medicine hehehe if the wood drying oven is different.

The most traditional way to dry wood is to dry it in the sun, and this method is still done by the majority of home-scale furniture craftsmen. Indeed, there is a solar wood oven, but to be honest, we have never seen its application in Jepara.

The next traditional method of drying wood is oven roasting, so by stacking the wood on a heat source, like someone who will grill satay. That's an easy version of the analogy, but there are a few techniques that can increase the efficiency of this roasting oven.

This oven roast uses heat from sawdust that is burned with an ember, so all the heat and smoke is in direct contact with the wood planks.

Therefore, this roasting oven is mostly used by mahogany furniture craftsmen, because the smoke from the burning of sawdust actually makes the mahogany wood color turn red. Meanwhile, if the teak wood is roasted in the oven, the result will be ugly, the color will be pale, gray, almost black.

Advantages of Baking Oven


  • Low manufacturing and operating costs
  • Easy to operate

Disadvantages


  • There are many, but the scariest thing is the risk of fire, because the heat source is very close to the wooden planks.
  • It's hard to control the temperature Only for boards, not for finished goods Only ideal for small capacities.
  • Dry time

So our conclusion regarding this roasting oven is, only ideal for small scale mahogany craftsmen, with a manufacturing cost of around 10 million rupiah or around $ 680 for a 4 x 5 m room we can already get a wood drying oven.

Especially if the room is just using a tarp, it's actually much cheaper, just digging the ground and buying a tarp is enough, no electricity, no blower, no hassle. But yes, this is balanced with the disadvantages and all the risks.

2. Wood Furnace Oven



The next type of wood drying oven is the wood stove oven, this type of oven is the most widely used in the Jepara furniture industry, ranging from small craftsmen to large companies.

This oven is very popular because it is relatively cheaper to manufacture than commercial-grade ovens, and is also quite flexible in its use, for boards as well as for finished goods.

The wood stove oven works by heating an iron tube using firewood or gas, the iron tube is placed in the wood drying oven chamber with a fuel filler mouth from the outside.

The heating tube or furnace is usually made of 5 mm thick iron plate, its diameter adjusts to the dimensions of the room. This tube is quite expensive, you know, the price range depends on the thickness of the plate starting from 6 million for a diameter of 80 cm and a height of 100 cm.

To get around the expensive price of oven tubes, many creative craftsmen use drums of used oil or thinner as a substitute for plate tubes, the prices are cheap, but they are easy to get porous because the plates are thin.

This oven model must use a blower to spread the heat evenly, the blower which is specifically for the oven, must be heat resistant so it doesn't melt easily.

A rough estimate of the cost of making a 5 x 5 meter wood stove complete with blower and installation starts at 30 million. This cost depends on the quality of the materials and tools used of course.

Advantages of the Furnace Oven


  • We can regulate the heat of the room by keeping the size of the fire.
  • Multifunctional because the room is quite clean from smoke.
  • The cost of manufacture is quite affordable and can be cheap if tricked by using used goods.
  • The capacity can be made from small to medium size

Weaknesses


  • The heat distribution is not evenly distributed, the area near the tube will be hotter than the area far from the tube, even if you use a strong blower.
  • Operations are quite troublesome, there must be fire guards who are on standby 24/7 to keep the oven's performance optimal.
  • The risk of damage to goods is high due to the distribution of heat that is not maximal.

This burner system oven is ideal for most furniture craftsmen in Jepara because apart from being quite effective, the manufacturing cost is not too high. However, this system oven is also not without its flaws, the uneven distribution of heat is the biggest drawback in our opinion.

3. Boiler Oven



I don't know the exact technical name for this type of oven, but the working principle is by heating water or oil which is then flowed to the side of the plate in the chamber, the system works like a car radiator.

The radiator or it could be in the form of a pipe coil and then releasing the hot water which is then distributed by a blower in the wood oven chamber.

Heating boilers or boiling vessels usually uses firewood or saw leftovers and furniture production waste, some use wood pellets if you want to automate the fuel feeding. You can imagine this boiler vessel like a water boiler, but its size is usually the size of a 2-story building.

Advantages of Boiler Ovens


  • We can have almost complete control over the heat.
  • wood oven room by regulating boiler heat The oven room is sterile from smoke, so it can be used for drying finished goods.
  • Flexible in use, can it be used for drying wood or other products, coffee, copra, or maybe briquettes?

Weaknesses


  • The initial investment is quite high, in the form of buildings and equipment.
  • Operational costs are also decent, in the form of fuel for boiler heating.
  • Only effective for large scale considering the large or expensive costs.

In my opinion, this wood drying oven with a boiler system is the most ideal for the furniture industry, but it is expensive to manufacture and operate, so it is only for large-scale players.

4. Vacuum kiln oven



The last type of wood drying oven used in the Jepara furniture industry is the vacuum oven. This oven is probably the most effective of all the techniques we mentioned above.

As the name suggests, vacuum ovens work by lowering the air pressure in the chamber to almost a vacuum, and at the same time heating up the temperature in the room.

Low air pressure makes the boiling point of the liquid lower, so we don't need to heat the room to extreme temperatures so that it can evaporate the liquid contained in the wood pores.

With temperatures that are not too high, damage caused by extreme heat can be avoided. So it dries quickly, and does not damage the wood.

There are several advantages and disadvantages of this vacuum system wood drying oven. Here are the advantages first.

Advantages of Vacuum Ovens


  • Very effective for drying wood
  • Does not damage the workpiece
  • Can be fully automated

Weaknesses


  • Expensive cost
  • The capacity is not too big

Vacuum ovens are only effective for companies that use sawan timber or box saw boards a lot, such as flooring companies. For Jepara furniture, which uses a lot of sawn-log boards, it doesn't seem very effective, especially in terms of cost.

Conclusion


My conclusion regarding the wood drying oven is that for a home industrial scale, a heating stove oven is the most ideal, while for an industrial scale, a boiler oven is the right choice.

several types of wood drying ovens used in the Jepara furniture industry. Yes, I know this is just my personal opinion, only from my personal experience. Maybe there are other types of ovens that I don't know about

If you have additional information or questions, please comment in the comments column.
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