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Understanding Islamic Economics, Systems and Characteristics

Navigasi - In a sense, Islamic Economics (sharia) is a social science that studies people's economic problems inspired by Islamic values. Islamic economics is different from the economic system of capitalism, socialism, and the welfare state.

Understanding Islamic Economics, Systems and Characteristics
Understanding Islamic Economics, Systems and Characteristics

It differs from capitalism in that Islam opposes the exploitation by the owners of capital of poor workers, and prohibits the accumulation of wealth. In addition, the economy in the eyes of Islam is a demand of life as well as a recommendation that has a worship dimension.

In general, religion (relegion) is defined as human perceptions and beliefs related to their existence, the universe, and God's role in the universe and human life so as to lead to patterns of human relationships and behavior with God, fellow humans and the universe.

Islamic Economic System

Meanwhile, in terms of the system, Islamic economics is different from Capitalism, Socialism, and the Welfare State. It differs from Capitalism in that Islam opposes the exploitation by owners of capital of poor workers, and prohibits the accumulation of wealth. “Woe to everyone who gathers up treasures and keeps counts” (104-2).

The poor in Islam are not condemned as lazy and who do not like to save or invest. The most obvious teachings of Islam uphold equal distribution efforts to realize social justice, "do not let wealth only circulate among the rich among you" (59:7). (Suhendi, p. 302).

The Islamic Economic System which is inspired by Islamic teachings can indeed be observed running in small communities in countries where the majority of the population is Muslim. However, in a globalized economy with open competition, Islamic businesses are often forced to adopt non-Islamic business practices.

For example, a company in the form of a limited liability company that separates ownership and management, in the process of raising capital through the capital market (Stock Exchange), is often forced to accept the principles of an un-Islamic capitalism system.

The teachings of Islam in human economic behavior and Indonesian business are increasingly pressing for its application not only because the majority of Indonesians are Muslims, but because it is increasingly clear that these moral teachings are very often not obeyed. In other words, deviation after deviation in Islam is clearly a source of various national economic problems.

Islamic economics views that individuals, communities, and governments have their own roles so that a centralized or decentralized decision-making system alone will not be able to meet individual and social needs (Economy, 2008, p. 79).

Characteristics of Islamic Economics

The most important characteristics of Islamic economic benefits include: 1). It is justified by sharia, where Islam requires that the benefits generated from economic activities must be allowed by sharia. 2) Must not contain elements of harm to others. 3) The breadth of the scope of benefits in Islamic economics which includes benefits in this world and in the hereafter (Haritsi, 2006, p. 40).

All economic activities, such as production, distribution, consumption, trade, are inseparable from the point of departure from God and the ultimate goal is to God, so when a Muslim works in the field of production, the work is done because he wants to fulfill Allah's commands (Masyhuri, 2005, p. 49).

Kertajaya quoted by Bukhari Alma and Donni Juni Priansa stated that the characteristics of Islamic marketing consist of several elements, namely divinity, ethical, realistic, and humanistic. Muhammad in his book "Islamic Business Ethics" that marketing ethics in the context of products include:

  • Halal and thoyyib products
  • Useful and needed products
  • Products with economic potential or benefits
  • High value added products
  • In numbers on an economic and social scale