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Cable Size to Electric Current

Navigation Info - the cross-sectional area of ​​​​the electric cable and the type of metal wire actually greatly affects the current and electrical resistance through the cable, therefore it is very interesting for us to discuss.

Metal type for cable

A cable has two types of substances, namely an insulator as a wrapper and a conductor as a medium for conducting electric current, both of which are very important for an electric current liaison and its safety, while the type of substance that is between the two is called a semiconductor.

While the substance to be a conductor of electric current greatly determines the resistance ( ohms ) produced by the metal / the substance as shown in the column below .
 

Type  conductor and its resistance

Conductor is a substance that is good at conducting electric current such as copper, iron, gold and others for more details you can see in the table below:

Type of metal conductor type resistance ( ohms )
Silver 1.59 × 10-⁸
Copper 1.68×10-⁸
Gold 2.44×10-⁸
Aluminum 2.65×10-⁸
Tungsten 5,6×10-⁸
Iron 9.71×10-⁸
Platinum 10.6×10-⁸
Mercury 98×10-⁸
Nichrome 100×10-⁸

From the table above we can conclude that I silver , copper then followed by gold which is a metal or a good conductor in conducting electric current .

From silver, copper and gold, the cheaper conductor of electricity is copper, so it's not surprising that cable manufacturing companies use copper as their raw material.

Types of semiconductors and their resistance 


Semiconductor is a material (substance) that is between an insulator and a conductor which at a certain temperature the material/substance can become a conductor which can conduct electric current for this type of semiconductor and its resistance you can see in the following table:


Type of semiconductor resistance type ( ohms )
Carbon (3-60)× 10-⁵
Germanium (1-500)×10-³
Silicone 0.1-60

Actually there are many more semiconductor materials but the most commonly used are 3 materials or substances above.

Types of insulators and their resistance


An insulator is a material or substance that does not conduct electricity well.

So it's not surprising that some companies making electronic equipment use insulators as safety for their products. those that will be in direct contact with electricity .

Insulating materials and their resistance ( ohm ) you can see in the table below :


Type of insulator resistance type ( ohm )
Solid rubber 10¹³×10¹⁵
Glass 10⁹× 10¹²

From above we can see that Sanya rubber is very good at being an insulator of dispersed conductivity the electricity is very bad.

Besides that the price of rubber is cheaper if compared to making glass, this makes many cable manufacturing companies use it as an insulator for their cable products plus the flexibility of rubber makes it easier for workers to connect electric current.


Cable cross-sectional area


The cross-sectional area of the cable also determines the maximum current that can flow in a cable media so that its size determines the electric current (amperes / A) that can flow safely in the conducting medium because if the calculation in determining u the size of the cross-sectional area of the cable carelessly will lead to electrical shorting or even the cable insulator can catch fire this can cause a building fire or even kill someone's life from wrong actions in determining the cross-sectional area of the electrical cable.

For more details about the size of the cable and the electric current that can flow, you can see the following table image:

Cable Size to Electric Current
Cable Size to Electric Current


In addition to determining the size of the cable that we use in the installation of an electrical equipment, determining the area Cable cross-section is also useful in the manufacture of electric motors because it can determine the speed and rotational power of an electric motor.

Formula of electrical resistance to cross-sectional area


Formulation of electrical resistance to a type of conducting substance and the size of the cross-sectional area can be formulated as follows:

Electric resistance formula
Electric resistance formula

From the above formula we can see that an electrical resistance (ohm) can be determined by the type of resistance (ohm m) / type of electrical current-conducting substance  ,the length of the conductor size (the length of the conductor) and the cross-sectional area of a conducting medium.

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