JASTOR SEEDS IN INDONESIA HAVE DECREASED IN QUALITY - Navigasi Berita a -->
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JASTOR SEEDS IN INDONESIA HAVE DECREASED IN QUALITY

Navigasi - Surabaya. Jatropha curcas is a prospective plant, as a source of biofuel and various kinds of its derivative products. However, these plant seeds often experience deterioration or decrease in their viability after going through a storage period and a decrease in quantity due to biotic factors. To overcome this problem, special technology or seed treatment is needed, so that the vigor and viability of the seeds can be increased so that they can be used as planting material properly. One of them is by giving invigoration treatment. Invigoration technique is one of the seed treatments before planting which aims to increase seed viability and vigor, indicated by increasing germination and seed performance. An invigoration technique that has been proven successful in increasing the viability of some seeds is matriconditioning technology. The induction is a controlled hydration or water absorption treatment on the moist solid media used, has a low matrix potential and negligible osmotic potential.

JASTOR SEEDS IN INDONESIA HAVE DECREASED IN QUALITY
JASTOR SEEDS IN INDONESIA HAVE DECREASED IN QUALITY


The matriconditioning invigoration technique can stimulate seed metabolism in germination, but radicle emergence can be delayed and is proven to improve seed performance. Seeds that have been given the matriconditioning treatment have metabolic conditions that are ready to germinate, so that the percentage of germination power and the speed of growth of sprouts increases. In research on soybean plants, this technique was able to increase seed viability with increased germination parameters and growth rates. In addition, the combination of invigoration with the addition of biological agents to nyamplung seeds can increase seed viability by up to 42%.

The biological agents commonly used as seed treatments come from the PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) group, one of which is Pseudomonas fluorescens. The secondary metabolites produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens are useful for stimulating seed germination, in the form of the hormone auxin or indole acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins and gibberellins. Siderophore compounds as bioprotectants against pathogens are also produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens from their metabolic processes. The use of the biological agent Pseudomonas fluorescens on the invigoration of testa hard (teak) type seeds was able to increase the maximum growth potential and germination rate by 32.65%.

Based on the above background, matriconditioning technology and the application of the biological agent Pseudomonas fluorescens need to be tested to induce Jatropha seeds whose viability has decreased. Specifically, especially in testing the length of matriconditioning treatment and the density of Pseudomonas fluorescens in order to optimally increase the viability of Jatropha seeds. This is because each seed has a different character and sensitivity to the seed treatment above.

This study aims to determine the effect of the interaction between matriconditioning duration and Pseudomonas fluorescens density and to determine the optimal matriconditioning duration and Pseudomonas fluorescens density to increase the viability and growth performance of Jatropha shoots and seedlings.

This research is in line with the University of Jember's Keris-Dimas Nutrition and Pest Management Rodmap as an effort to obtain healthy seeds through the use of biological agents and matriconditioning. In addition, it is also in line with the leading research theme of the University of Jember, namely to support industrial agriculture and in accordance with the research theme of cultivation techniques that are adaptive to environmental changes.

This research was carried out and fully assisted by our students, namely Tofan. To ensure that the seeds used have actually decreased in viability, that is by using free fatty acid analysis and electrical conductivity on several lots of jatropha seeds. The results of the analysis on seeds with varying viability yielded different percentages of seed fat content.

The results showed that the longer the jatropha seeds were stored, the free fatty acids of the seeds increased. Jatropha seed viability and vigor decreased more quickly than other seeds with carbohydrate (starch) content due to the high content of unsaturated fat in jatropha seeds. These fats undergo oxidation which can affect the viability and vigor of the seeds. The occurrence of the oxidation process of unsaturated fats produces free radicals in the seeds which trigger a decrease in the viability and vigor of jatropha seeds. The change of fat into free fatty acids will be quickly damaged if the seeds are not immediately used for germination, so that the available energy reserves in the seeds are decreasing and not sufficient to support germination. In other words, the energy reserves available in the seed affect the viability and vigor of the seed.

Electrical conductivity can be measured through conductivity tests of several seed lots and can also be used as an illustration of the viability of jatropha seeds by looking at the leakage of the cell membranes in the seeds. The difference in the conductivity values ​​of the test results shows that the longer the Jatropha seeds are stored, the conductivity value increases. So the seeds that have lost their viability are used as material for this research.

Based on the results of the analysis of diversity, it was shown that the dose of the biological agent Pseudomonas fluorescens had a significant effect on growth speed, vigor index and seed germination time of up to 50% (T50). The effect of a single factor in the matriconditioning treatment showed a very significant effect on the simultaneity of growth and germination. However, the matriconditioning treatment had no significant effect on maximum growth potential, plant height, dry weight of normal and abnormal sprouts. Meanwhile, the effect of a single factor in the Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment was highly significant in terms of growth synchrony, germination capacity and maximum growth potential. However, this treatment had no significant effect on plant height, dry weight of normal and abnormal sprouts.

Based on Duncan's Multiple Range Test, it showed that the combination of 24 hours matriconditioning treatment and 100 ml l-1 dose of Pseudomonas fluorescens produced the best treatment on variables representing seed vigor (growth speed and vigor index). The best matriconditioning time was the 24-hour treatment time for seed viability (germination) and seed vigor (growing speed, growth simultaneity and vigor index). While the best single factor dose of Pseudomonas fluorescens remained the same at the dose of interaction, namely at a dose of 100 ml l-1, especially on seed viability (germination), seed vigor (growth speed, growth simultaneity, vigor index) and maximum growth potential. *) Lecturers and students of Agronomy Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jember

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