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The Great War of the Cirebon Kingdom Against Sumedang

Navigasi - Queen Harisbaya was the second wife of Panembahan Ratu I, the ruler of Cirebon who reigned in 1570-1649 AD. In 1585 AD, Geusun Ulun, a king from the Sumedang Larang Kingdom with his senopati Jayaperkasa, took Queen Harisbaya away from the Cirebon Royal palace.

The Great War of the Cirebon Kingdom Against Sumedang
The Great War of the Cirebon Kingdom Against Sumedang.


As a Sovereign Islamic Kingdom in the land of Sunda, it is clear that Panembahan Ratu's pride as the King of Cirebon felt trampled by the incident.

After this embarrassing event, Panembahan Ratu then declared war on Sumedang. Faced with the challenge from Cirebon, Sumedang was not afraid, because for Geusun Ulun, Ratu Harisbaya had to become his wife. The story of the battle between Cirebon and Sumedang caused by the flight of the Queen of Cirebon is told in several classic texts, including Pustaka Kertabumi, Babad Sumedang, and Chronicle Limbangan.

Before the war, these two neighboring kingdoms were preceded by a very long story, namely the story where Panembahan Ratu, Geusun Ulun and Harisbaya were still young.

The three of them were students of Hadiwijaya (Jaka Tingkir/Sultan Pajang I), Sunan Gunung Jati, who was none other than Panembahan Ratu's great-grandfather, is said to have sent Panembahan Ratu to study state administration to Jaka Tingkir in Pajang. Likewise with Prince Santri, he sent his son Geusun Ulun to Pajang to study there.

While Harisbaya herself was said to be a Madurese princess who served herself in Pajang.

Panembahan Ratu's achievements in Pajang looked so brilliant, after he felt he was quite capable in mastering constitutional science, Hadiwijaya married his daughter Ratu Mas Pajang to Panembahan Ratu, the aim was to tie kinship ties with the Cirebon Kingdom.

Later, when Panembahan Ratu became King of Cirebon, Ratu Mas Pajang later became empress of the Cirebon Kingdom.

Meanwhile, Geusun Ulun, who is blessed with a handsome face, turns out to be involved in a location romance with Harisbaya, the two of them love each other. The love story of Geusun Ulun and Harisbaya then floated when one day Geusun Ulung returned to Sumedang to become King to replace his father who had died.

Both Panembahan Ratu and Geusun Ulun are now Kings in their respective countries. The two of them were already married, while at Pajang Harisbaya had always hoped for a match with Geusun Ulun without certainty.

After some time, news spread that in Pajang Hadiwijaya had died after falling from his battle elephant while facing a rebellion launched by Sutawijaya, son of Ki Ageng Pamanahan Duke of Mataram.

When he found out that his father-in-law had passed away from Panembahan Ratu as the Sultan of Cirebon, he attended Hadiwijaya's funeral in Pajang.

The throne of Pajang after Hadiwijaya's death was then handed over to Arya Panggiri. The attitude that was raised by Panembahan Ratu in response to the Mataram rebellion against Pajang was a counter attitude, he continued to support Pajang under Arya Panggiri.

For Panembahan Ratu's attitude in supporting Arya Panggiri, Arya Panggiri then awarded Harisbaya to Penembahan Ratu. After that incident, Harisbaya officially became Panembahan Ratu's second wife.

At first Panembahan Ratu's marriage to Harisbaya went well, not long after that Harisbaya became pregnant with Panembahan Ratu's child. The story of Panembahan Ratu and Harisbaya's happiness was then shattered when at one time Gesun Ulun and his four senopatis visited Cirebon.

During the state visit, which was expected to take days, it seemed that the meeting between Geusun Ulun and Harisbaya was inevitable.

The two of them then became involved in love for the second time, but this time Harisbaya had become someone else's wife. Geusun Ulun was actually very aware of this situation, sometimes he kept his distance so that the pain in his heart would not bite so much.

If Geusun Ulun was able to withstand the soaring love, then Harisbaya did not, he chose to face shame to meet Geusun Ulun, his past lover.

In the last meeting before Geusun Ulun returned to Sumedang, Harisbaya apparently begged Geusun Ulun with tears in his eyes to take him to Sumedang. Of course this was rejected by Geusun Ulun.

But apparently love is blind, Geusun Ulun felt uneasy, in his mind he imagined Harisbaya's request which was filled with tears, he then discussed with Senopatinya Jayaperkasa about the issue of Harisbaya's request.

Surprisingly Jayaperkasa actually welcomed it, he even suggested that the King take Ratu Harisbaya to Sumedang. Receiving Senopatih's trusted advice, Geusun Ulun's love for Harisbaya became even more blind.

Jayaperkasa is Senopati of the Kingdom of Sumedang, he is a former dignitary of the Kingdom of Pajajaran who was part of the team delivering the crown of the Bhinokasih Kingdom of Pajajaran after the kingdom was conquered by Cirebon and Banten.

The Sumedang Kingdom is the heir to the Pajajaran Kingdom after its collapse, because the last King of Pajajaran before being conquered by Cirebon and Banten appointed Sumedang Larang as his legal heir, that's why King Pajajaran sent his crown to Sumedang Larang Jayaperkasa wanted war with Cirebon, because for him Cirebon had to be controlled again, especially since at that time he considered Cirebon weak because his ally Pajang had faced the problem of the Mataram rebellion in his country. That's why he used the king's blind love to start a war with Cirebon. Long story short, Geusun Ulun and his senopatih then took Harisbaya away, to Sumedang. All the occupants of the palace and even the people of Cirebon were then shocked, because the king's wife was taken away by the king from another kingdom. After being taken by Harisbaya to Sumedang, Panembahan Ratu declared war. Jayaperkasa happily welcomed the announcement of war, because that was his wish. War then broke out, Cirebon then sent its troops to attack Sumedang, Patih Jayaperkasa with great enthusiasm fought against Cirebon's onslaughts. The fierce war between the two neighboring kingdoms subsided only after Cirebon succeeded in defeating Patih Jayaperkasa.

After Jayaperkasa's death, it seems that a peace agreement was agreed upon between the two kingdoms. This was made possible by the awareness of high-ranking officials in the Sumedang Kingdom, because not all high-ranking Sumedang officials agreed with Jayaperkasa's actions. After conducting several negotiations between the two Sundanese Islamic kingdoms, and Panembahan, the queen found out that it was Harisbaya who asked to be rushed. So later Panembahan Ratu divorced Harisbaya, however the compensation for the talaq that Panembahan Ratu had imposed had to be redeemed by Sumedang by handing over the Sindangkasih area (now Majalengka Regency) to the authority of the Cirebon Kingdom, Sumedang then agreed. To end the war and enmity with Cirebon, Geusun Ulun then promised that Panembahan Ratu's child who was still in Harisbaya's womb would later become King of Sumedang after his death. Receiving a negotiation decision in favor of Cirebon, henceforth the enmity between the two Sunda Kingdoms was then officially ended. Meanwhile, to avoid conflict with his family, Geusun Ulun then distributed inheritance to the children of his other wives in the form of territorial divisions and the position of Duke throughout the Sumedang Larang kingdom. After that incident, Geusun Ulun lived happily with his lover.

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